Peter H. Ditto, Sean P. Wojcik, Eric E. Chen, Rebecca Hofstein Grady, and Joanne F. Zinger (UC-Irvine), Brittany Liu (Kalamazoo), and Cory J. Clark (Florida State): At Least Bias Is Bipartisan: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Partisan Bias in Liberals and Conservatives. Why liberals aren’t as tolerant as they think. Jeremy Frimer (Winnipeg) and Linda J. Skitka and Matt Motyl (UIC): Liberals and Conservatives are Similarly Motivated to Avoid Exposure to One Another's Opinions. “Motivated ignorance” is ruining our political discourse: Talking with a political opponent is almost as unpleasant as getting a tooth pulled.

How we became bitter political enemies: Members of the two parties are more likely today to describe each other unfavorably, as selfish, as threats, even as unsuitable marriage material. Douglas Ahler (Florida State) and David E. Broockman (Stanford): The Delegate Paradox: Why Polarized Politicians Can Represent Citizens Best. In the Trump era, America is racing toward peak polarization. No, Americans are not polarized by ideology: Most people do not possess a system of logical constraints when it comes to politics. James L. Gibson and Joan Barcelo (WUSTL) and Christopher Claassen (Glasgow): Is Hatred Really the Main Emotional Source of Political Intolerance?

How far will the Right go in blaming the Left for the Alexandria shootings? Blaming “heated political rhetoric” is the most useless response to a shooting. What do many mass shooters have in common? A history of domestic violence. Bigoted homophobe Steve Scalise’s life was saved by a queer black woman. Michael Loadenthal (George Mason): Leftist Political Violence: From Terrorism to Social Protest. Is America descending into political violence again? America has always been angry and violent: The Alexandria shooting has prompted much handwringing about the state of the nation — but political violence and anger are embedded in America's DNA.

How Congress failed to plan for doomsday: What would happen if some crazed gunman or terrorist massacred Congress?