From the World Bank, here is the latest Global Financial Development Report 2014: Financial Inclusion. Enrico C. Perotti (Amsterdam): The Political Economy of Finance. Tamara Lothian (Columbia): Democracy, Law and Global Finance: A Legal and Institutional Perspective; and Democracy, Law and Global Finance: An Example of Research Agenda for a New Practice of Law and Economics. Shelley D. Marshall (Monash): Shifting Responsibility: How the Burden of the European Financial Crisis Shifted Away from the Financial Sector and Onto Labor. Bojidar V. Bojinov (Tsenov): Causes of Banking Crises in Modern World. Augusto Lopez-Claros (World Bank): Fiscal Challenges after the Global Financial Crisis: A Survey of Key Issues. Gary Bedford (Denver): Beyond the 2008 Financial "Crisis": Global Capital after Marx and Modernism. Giovanni Giusti (Pompeu Fabra), Charles N. Noussair (Tilburg), and Hans-Joachim Voth (Zurich): Recreating the South Sea Bubble: Lessons from an Experiment in Financial History. From The Historical Review, a special issue on Responding to Economic Crises in Historical Perspective, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. From The Economist, a look at the slumps that shaped modern finance: Finance is not merely prone to crises, it is shaped by them — five historical crises show how aspects of today’s financial system originated and offer lessons for today’s regulators. Shadow and substance: As banks retreat in the wake of the financial crisis, “shadow banks” are taking on a growing share of their business — will that make finance safer? Stop blaming the IMF for everything: Matt O'Brien on how the IMF has actually become the "good guys" since the financial crisis hit.

Carlo Cellucci (Rome): How Should We Think about the “Meaning of Life”? Zaidan Jassem (Qassim): The Arabic Origins of “Proper Names” in English and European Languages: A Lexical Root Theory Approach. Paul Finkelman (Albany): Francis Lieber and the Modern Law of War. Why did AIDS ravage the U.S. more than any other developed country? Michael Hobbes on solving an epidemiological mystery. Maria Khwaja on the privilege of being “invisible”: As a brown Muslim woman, my visibility comes with my Otherness. Michael Sherry reviews American Arsenal: A Century of Waging War by Patrick Coffey. WaPo editorial page goes neanderthal, again: The Washington Post publishes a piece by two academics arguing that women would be safer from sexual assaults if they themselves were married or had married fathers. Tara Culp-Ressler on all of the things women are supposed to do to prevent rape. On climate change, Obama is finally leading from the front. Steve Watson on five excellent videos of magazines being made. That computer actually got an F on the Turing Test: No, a computer did not just pass the Turing Test. What comes after the Turing Test? Pure Language 2.0: A look at Walter Benjamin’s theory of language and translation technology. Wine is an elixir, a miracle-worker and shapeshifter — no wonder even the most secular of us hold it sacred still. Jesse Singal on why kids shoot up high schools, why they only do so outside of big cities, and how to stop them. Politicians and pundits demanded an armed revolution, so the Millers attempted to deliver one. Does Fox News cause ignorance, or do ignorant viewers prefer Fox News?

Huub Dijstelbloem (Amsterdam): Science in a Not So Well-Ordered Society: A Pragmatic Critique of Procedural Political Theories of Science and Democracy. Caroline S. Wagner (Ohio State) and Dae Joong Kim (Dongguk): The Price of Big Science: Saturation or Abundance in Scientific Publishing? Carlo Caduff (King’s): Pandemic Prophecy, Or, How to Have Faith in Reason. Michele Marsonet (Genoa): Pragmatism and Science. Paul Hoyningen-Huene (Hanover): Scientific Progress from Popper to Today. Einstein the failure — how history’s greatest physicist flirted with disaster: An excerpt from The Perfect Theory: A Century of Geniuses and the Battle Over General Relativity by Pedro G. Ferreira. The case for blunders: Freeman Dyson reviews Brilliant Blunders: From Darwin to Einstein — Colossal Mistakes by Great Scientists that Changed Our Understanding of Life and the Universe by Mario Livio. Peter Godfrey-Smith is the go-to guy in the philosophy of biology. Philip Ball on why physicists make up stories in the dark: In unseen worlds, science invariably crosses paths with fantasy. Damien Walter on rebuilding the world: Science shows us how the world is built — can science fiction help us build a better world? It's science, Jim, but not as we knew it. Which scientific stories are most shared on social media networks such as Twitter and Facebook, and do articles attracting social media attention also get the attention of scholars and the mass media? Cosmos, Christians, and the battle for American science: The real reason conservatives are freaking out about Neil deGrasse Tyson — he's laying bare their worst hypocrisies. “I’m not a scientist” allows Republicans to avoid conceding the legitimacy of climate science while also avoiding the political downside of openly branding themselves as haters of science. What can we do about junk science? Sarah Fecht investigates.

Prerna Diwaker (Nanyang): The Emerging Threat of Nuclear Terrorism from Asia. Saroj Kumar Rath (Delhi): South Asia’s Future Security: The Danger of Terrorism from Pakistan. Monika Chansoria on how Pakistan’s tactical nukes threaten stability in South Asia. Shams Zaman on dangerous trends in nuclear South Asia. From American Diplomacy, Jon P. Dorschner reviews Shooting for a Century: The India-Pakistan Conundrum by Stephen P. Cohen; and Donald Camp reviews No Exit from Pakistan: America’s Tortured Relationship with Islamabad by Daniel S. Markey. Pakistan, worse than we knew: Ahmed Rashid reviews The Wrong Enemy: America in Afghanistan, 2001–2014 by Carlotta Gall. In too deep: Raza Rumi on how Pakistan’s relationship with Afghanistan is caught in the muddled terrain of domestic political machinations and regional ambitions. Vikas Kumar on Pakistan’s fragile periphery. Muslim Zion: Jon P. Dorschner reviews Muslim Zion: Pakistan as a Political Idea by Faisal Devji. The Musharraf Boomerang: Could the new Pakistani government’s pursuit of the country’s former dictator be its own undoing? Investigating the assassination of former Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto, UN lead commissioner Heraldo Munoz recalls the surveillance and corruption that obstructed his team’s search for answers. Who’s afraid of the ISI? Ali Sethi on the attempted assassination of journalist Hamid Mir, who hosts one of Geo TV’s most popular current affairs programs. Isaac Chotiner interviews Mohammed Hanif on the life of journalists on an assassin's hit list. India's nationalistic new leader made an extraordinarily warm gesture towards Pakistan — too bad Pakistan can't reciprocate. Leaders of India and Pakistan hold rare meeting. The Al-Qaeda and the Lashkar-e-Toiba: Riddhi Shah on a case of growing ideological homogeneity. The Pakistani Taliban claim responsibility for a brazen raid on Karachi's civilian airport which left at least 28 people dead.

Matias Dewey (Max Planck): Crisis and the Emergence of Illicit Markets: A Pragmatist View on Economic Action Outside the Law. Michael Della Rocca (Yale): Adventures in Rationalism (“Many philosophers today think that rationalism is a crazy view. However, this paper argues in support of rationalism, and explores its implications.”) From Languages of the World, what is phonemic diversity, and does it prove the out-of-Africa theory? Asya Pereltsvaig on tracing Indo-European languages back to their source — through the false mirrors of the popular press. From Edge, Steven Pinker on writing in the 21st century. Jesse Singal on why we need to get better at identifying mass killers before they strike. From New York, Obama promised to do 4 big things as president — now he’s done them all; and do Democrats need Hillary Clinton to save them in 2016? Here are four things to keep in mind about the public opinion landscape facing Clinton. Democrats may have a "Hillary or Bust" problem, but that's nothing compared to the GOP's policy problem. Rightbloggers appear to attack returning POW Bergdahl — but he's not the real target. Joseph Stromberg on 7 things the most-highlighted Kindle passages tell us about American readers. Tomasz Sikora on the pornography of bare life. George Dvorsky on why a "sex chip" could be considerably more trouble than it's worth. Awkward-but-nonetheless-competent people of the world, unite! Let's come up with our own way of giving off positive first impressions. Paul Krugman on interests, ideology and climate: The monetary stakes, it turns out, are not the biggest obstacle to rational action on global warming.

Gurminder K Bhambra (Warwick): A Sociological Dilemma: Race, Segregation and US Sociology. Pedro Gonzalez (Saint Thomas): Race and Ethnicity in Video Games: A Reflection of Social Reality: Racism, Hate Speech and Prejudice: A Manifestation of Social Stereotypes. Paul A. Gowder (Iowa): Racial Classification and Ascriptive Injury. From the forthcoming Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Nationalism, here is the entry on racism, structural and institutional by Kasey Henricks. Slurs, stereotypes, and in-equality: Adam Croom reviews “Discursive Colorlines at Work: How Epithets and Stereotypes are Racially Unequal” by David G. Embrick and Kasey Henricks. Racism is a framework, not a theory: We can think of racism not a scientific theory but as a way of understanding the world. The paradox of racism: Andrew Gelman on why A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race, and Human History, the new book by Nicholas Wade, is both plausible and preposterous (and more and more and more and more and more). Eric Holder wants to talk about “subtle” discrimination — this is what he means. Jesse Singal on how racism doesn’t work the way you think it does. A look at how scarcity of resources might make people more racist, shows cool face-morphing study. Does racism make you less creative? Nicholas Hune-Brown investigates. Tanzina Vega on how students see many slights as racial “microaggressions”. From Vox, Ezra Klein on how you can be a beneficiary of racism even if you’re not a racist. The racism beat: Cord Jefferson on what it’s like to write about hate over and over and over. An interactive map shows where America's hate groups are. Gary Younge on the truth about race in America: It’s getting worse, not better.

Daniel Treisman (UCLA): Democratization Over Time. Jorgen Moller and Svend-Erik Skaaning (Aarhus): The Third Wave: Inside the Numbers. Thiago Marzagao (OSU): Ideological Bias in Democracy Measures. Denis Burakov (Denver): Revisiting Democratization Theory. Alfred Moore (Cambridge): Between Competence and Consent: Democratic Theory and Expertise. Luis Camacho (GDI): Understanding Regime Support in New and Old Democracies: The Role of Performance and Democratic Experience. Balazs Szent-Ivanyi (Corvinus): Are Democratizing Countries “Rewarded” with Higher Levels of Foreign Aid? Christian Bjornskov (Aarhus) and Martin Rode (Navarra): Democratic Transitions and Institutional Change: What's Behind the Association? Mike Albertus (Chicago) and Victor Menaldo (Washington): Gaming Democracy: Elite Dominance during Transition and the Prospects for Redistribution. Daron Acemoglu and Pascual Restrepo (MIT), Suresh Naidu (Columbia), and James Robinson (Harvard): Democracy Does Cause Growth (and more). Yannick Pengl (ETH): Strong Theories, Weak Evidence: The Effect of Economic Inequality on Democratization. Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood became more illiberal after its first brush with power — sparking an authoritarian reaction that makes a democratic future seem further away. Thanassis Cambanis on one lesson of the Arab Spring — we’re putting billions of dollars into efforts that may not help. Warlord politics aren’t always bad for democracy: As Charles Tilly reminded us years ago, the crafting of democracy is a messy process than can involve unsavory characters — but that doesn't mean it isn't working. At the “end of history” still stands democracy: Francis Fukuyama on how twenty-five years after Tiananmen Square and the Berlin Wall's fall, liberal democracy still has no real competitors. You can download The Democratic Challenge: Democratization and De-Democratization in Global Perspective by Jorge Nef and Bernd Reiter (2008).

James Luchte (Wales): The Tragic Community: Friedrich Nietzsche and Mao Tse Tung. From e-conservation Journal, Dimitrios Doumas on the culture of exhibitions and conservation. From Krisis, what does it mean that gender and race are socially constructed? A symposium on Sally Haslanger’s Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. What a saga: G.W. Bowersock reviews The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words, 1000 BC–1492 AD by Simon Schama. Peter Beinart on Bowe Bergdahl and the resurgence of conservative Islamophobia. Richard Kreitner on Bowe Bergdahl and the honorable history of war deserters. From TLS, a review essay on Descartes's other side by Catherine Wilson. When a work of art is considered great, we may stop thinking about it for ourselves: Ian Leslie on why the Mona Lisa stands out. Jesse Singal on how the reaction to LeBron’s cramps shows we still have some dangerously stupid views on masculinity. Martin Sixsmith on why 800 dead babies are probably just the beginning. Greta Christina on imposter syndrome, and what it means to be an adult. Neil deGrasse Tyson has taken viewers on a remarkable journey — there's just one big thing he gets wrong. Matt Maranian finds that there’s a lot to learn about the history of pin-up magazines, more than you’d ever imagine, and this set leaves no stone unturned and no skirt unlifted. Cass Sunstein on why officials don't tell the media everything. Rachel Maddow, Isocrates, and the power of speech: Thomas Larson on the changing nature of authorship in the age of mass media as illustrated by the MSNBC host.

Corinna Lain (Richmond): God, Civic Virtue, and the American Way: Reconstructing Engel. Eric Segall (Georgia State): Silence is Golden: Moments of Silence, Legislative Prayers, and the Establishment Clause. Philip Hamburger (Columbia): Equality and Exclusion: Religious Liberty and Political Process. Micah Schwartzman (Virginia): Religion as a Legal Proxy. John M. A. DiPippa (Arkansas): God and Guns: The Free Exercise of Religion Problems of Regulating Guns in Churches and Other Houses of Worship. From Philosophy and Public Issues, a symposium on Democratic Authority and the Separation of Church and State by Robert Audi. Town of Greece v. Galloway is the case that proponents of the separation of church and state have feared every since Justice Sandra Day O’Connor left the Supreme Court in 2006 (and more and more). Conservative Christians just won a huge case — why won't they celebrate? Josh Israel on the Alliance Defending Freedom, the 800-pound gorilla of the Christian Right. Randall Balmer on the real origins of the Religious Right: They’ll tell you it was abortion, but sorry, the historical record’s clear — it was segregation. Emma Green on how racism lives on under the cover of religious freedom. The conflict between religious freedom and gender/sexual equality has become "the most important civil rights issue of this time", so says Katherine Franke, director of the Center for Gender and Sexuality Law at Columbia Law School. Is it immoral for a Christian to publish this book? Marc Tracy on the publication God and the Gay Christian: The Biblical Case in Support of Same-Sex Relationships by Matthew Vines. If a student says homosexuality is a sin in school, is it bullying? Emma Green wonders.

Tonya L. Brito (Wisconsin): What We Talk About When We Talk About Matriarchy. Laura Rosenbury (WUSTL): Work Wives. Bryce Covert on the radical movement to close the gender wage gap that you’ve never heard of. Louise O'Shea on Marxism and women's liberation. Tired of capitalism? Try ecofeminism — economies undervalue “women’s work”, but are men to blame? You’re a woman, I’m a machine: Haley Mlotek on how self-help for the “working woman” isn’t helping. Nitasha Tiku on how to get girls into coding. Kat Stoeffel on closing Wikipedia’s gender gap — reluctantly. Amanda Hess on why women aren't welcome on the Internet. Virtual brutality: For many women, the Internet has become a pit of sexual harassment and death threats; government — and tech companies — can do something about it. Let’s be real: Online harassment isn’t “virtual” for women. Katie Heaney on what men don’t know about being a woman online. Jessica Valenti on the end of hisses, whistles and stares: we need to walk the streets without fear. Amanda Marcotte on how what's really happening with rape isn't “brainwashing”. Zerlina Maxwell on the insane (and hopeless) logic of #YesAllWomen critics. Chris Osterndorf on Lena Dunham and the history of calling women “sluts”. Are you a slut? That depends — are you rich? There's no such thing as a slut: A new longitudinal study examined how college students slut-shame — and found that the practice is as illogical as it is damaging. Who is a feminist now? Marisa Meltzer wonders. Kat Stoeffel on why it’s great that women say “I don’t know”. Feminism has just started (and it’s not stopping now): An excerpt from Men Explain Things to Me by Rebecca Solnit (and more and more).