From The Philosophical Forum, some people feel threatened by the thought that life might have arisen by chance — what is it about “chance” that some people find so threatening? Brooke Alan Trisel on intended and unintended life. From Scientific American, scientists probe human nature — and discover we are good, after all; and shine on you crazy diamond: S.E. Gould on why humans are carbon-based lifeforms. ENCODE: Ed Yong on a rough guide to the human genome. A scientific team sequences 1,092 human genomes to determine standard range of human genetic variation. Malicia Rogue on the genetic fatality of what you are. Not be so identical after all: Even though identical twins supposedly share all of their DNA, they acquire hundreds of genetic changes early in development that could set them on different paths. Do we want “genetically modified children”? Yes, of course! David Wood on the future of human enhancement. Suppose you think that reducing the risk of human extinction is the highest-value thing you can do, and suppose also that you think AI is the most pressing x-risk, in that case, what should you do?