Peter C. Caldwell (Rice): The Welfare State as the End of Western Civilization: Conservative Critique in the Early Federal Republic of Germany. Catholic hospitals, kindergartens and nursing homes — which are primarily tax-funded — are causing problems for Germany's social welfare state, but some politicians are fighting back. Jens-Martin Eriksen and Frederik Stjernfelt on Europe’s battle over symbols: Multiculturalism has created separate societies within the same territory. Rewriting the history of Muslims in modern Europe while addressing current Islamophobia: Historian Lucette Valensi has taken up a challenge that would have sent most of her colleagues running. Mick Power reviews A Secular Europe: Law and Religion in the European Constitutional Landscape by Lorenzo Zucca. Three out of four “persecuted” Christians lose their ECHR discrimination cases.