Abdulmalik Mousa Altamimi (Leeds): The UN's "Responsibility to Protect" and the Muslim World’s Need for Regulated Democracies. Haider Ala Hamoudi (Pittsburgh): Arab Spring, Libyan Liberation and the Externally Imposed Democratic Revolution. Achim Vogt (FEF): Jordan's Eternal Promise of Reform. From the Journal of Democracy, Alfred Stepan (Columbia): Tunisia’s Transition and the Twin Tolerations; and Abdou Filali-Ansary (Aga Khan): The Languages of the Arab Revolutions. From CyberOrient, Mohammed el-Nawawy (QUC) and Sahar Khamis (Maryland): Political Activism 2.0: Comparing the Role of Social Media in Egypt’s “Facebook Revolution” and Iran’s “Twitter Uprising”; and Jens Kutscher (FAU): Islamic Shura, Democracy, and Online Fatwas. Kelly McEvers on how the United States looked the other way while Bahrain crushed the Arab Spring’s most ill-fated uprising. Why has the Arab Spring not sprung in Saudi Arabia? The Arab Spring uprisings were not prompted by religion as in Iran 1979 — but some think the Arab winter may bring a counter-revolutionary Muslim Reformation. Will democracy change the Middle East's borders?

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