From the Journal of Pan African Studies, Stephen Okhonmina (Igbinedion): The African Union: Pan-Africanist Aspirations and the Challenge of African Unity; Serie McDougal (SFSU): African Foreign Policy: A Question of Methodology; and Oyekan Adeolu Ouwaseyi (Lagos State): Democracy and Africa's Search for Development; and a review of An Afrocentric Manifesto: Toward an African Renaissance by Molefi Kete Asante. The scramble for Timbuktu: Scenes from the race for influence over Africa's ancient written culture. Sanou Mbaye on Francafrique at 50. France beckons Africa: They say the old habits will end — really? Covering the vast continent is no easy task, but Arise magazine does so in a bold and beautiful way. A review of Bertrand Taithe's The Killer Trail: A Colonial Scandal in the Heart of Africa. A look at how how China and India really operate in Africa. Unesco launches effort in Africa to teach the continent its history. The humanitarian's dilemma: Should Westerners help needy Africans? To save Africa, reject its nations: A global effort to derecognize failed African states will force their rulers to adopt the necessary reforms to gain domestic support. Representatives of universities from developed countries, and other well-intentioned people, arrive in Africa with basic assumptions that undermine their work. The Botswana success story: How one African country slowed the AIDS crisis (and more). Why can’t anyone stop the LRA? One of the evilest rebel armies in Africa has been kidnapping children and murdering civilians for 20 years despite constant international efforts to wipe it out. Where Ghana went right: How one African country emerged intact from its post-colonial struggles. Is Ghana amongst the worst-branded in Africa now? (Almost) Out of Africa: Joshua Hammer on the white tribes.